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In our ongoing commitment to advancing mental health research and practical clinical tools, we are pleased to share the results of a significant study published on September 21, 2022, in PLOS ONE. This study introduces the LoPF-Q 12–18 (Levels of Personality Functioning Questionnaire), a measure designed to facilitate the early detection of personality disorders (PD) in adolescents aged 12 and up.


The LoPF-Q 12–18 operationalizes the dimensional concept of PD severity utilized in both the DSM-5's Alternative Model for Personality Disorders and the ICD-11. Its development was geared toward clinical use, aiming to promote the early identification of PDs, a crucial step in enabling timely interventions.

Study Overview

The research effort led by our team sought to investigate the factorial structure of the LoPF-Q 12–18. Through rigorous analysis, including confirmatory factor analysis, we developed both a comprehensive 97-item version and an efficient 20-item short version, the latter optimized for clinical screening purposes. The short version, termed the "LoPF-Q Screener," underwent development using the ant colony optimization algorithm, ensuring its effectiveness in clinical validity and internal consistency.

Key Findings

The LoPF-Q Screener demonstrated excellent performance across various parameters, notably in its clinical validity, where it showed a substantial ability to differentiate between PD patients and healthy controls. Its design allows it to capture the essence of personality functioning across four key domains: Identity, Self-direction, Empathy, and Intimacy, maintaining a balance and broad coverage of clinically relevant aspects.


The development of the LoPF-Q Screener represents a practical advancement in the field of adolescent mental health. It offers a reliable, efficient tool for the early identification of personality disorders, addressing a critical need within the global mental health landscape. The flexibility of the LoPF-Q Screener, allowing for its use in various contexts where a longer assessment may not be feasible, underscores its potential to bridge significant gaps in the diagnosis and understanding of personality disorders in young populations.


While we recognize that diagnostic tools alone cannot solve the complex challenge of mental health gaps, they are indispensable in the broader strategy to enhance research, intervention, and ultimately, patient outcomes. The LoPF-Q Screener stands as a testament to the collaborative effort and dedication of researchers and clinicians to advancing our understanding and management of personality disorders in adolescence.

For more information on the study and the LoPF-Q Screener, please refer to the full article here.